Business Terms with Chinese Trans.

Business & Economics Key Terms 

with Chinese Translation

In the interest of helping helping students, Businesses, and Professionals, we have developed an extensive list of professional key vocabulary terms with Chinese and English translations. Each entry has three parts–

  1. English Word 
  2. English DefinitionI created each definition with a focus on simplicity and clarity for ESL speakers.
  3. Chinese Word The Chinese terms were helpfully reviewed and edited by Chinese students in Business, Economics, and Legal classes.

Please keep in mind that the goal of this list is to give you a basis for education, general conversation, and basic English-Chinese communication. The terms were originally compiled to help Chinese students more effectively comprehend English-language materials in their Business Courses. This project was designed to provide them with a working dictionary and translation list that they could take with them into their work with international companies after graduation

I have found the list to be extremely helpful, both in my work as a legal/business professional and as an ESL educator. So I am sharing the information with others in the hopes of simplifying and facilitating easier communication in business between English and Chinese speakers. 

Although I have worked hard to provide Chinese words that most closely match the English meaning, please be aware that this list is not meant to be relied upon for official or legal documents. The Chinese language is extremely complex, containing both many nuances and many geographical / cultural variations. I highly recommend you verify the proper Chinese translations with professional translators working in Business Chinese before using them in an official capacity.

If you do find corrections, please let me know in the comments!  

I’d love to know if this resources helps anyone out and how you use the vocabulary terms in your work!  

Abbreviations 简短的:

  • v. = Verb
  • n. = Noun
  • adj. = Adjective
  • adv. = Adverb

(c) All Rights Reserved. You are welcome to use this material. However, if you do end up using these definitions in your material (educational, informational, or professional), please include either a link to this webpage or the following reference: Olivia L Blessing, JD. “Business Vocabulary with Chinese Translation.”   Thanks!


Advise (v.) ~ Offer someone suggestions about what to do (e.g. who to hire, what rules to make, where to invest, etc.). Alternatives include: Advisory (adj.), Adviser (n.), Advice (n.).  提供意见 – Tígōng Yìjiàn

Agency (n. / adj.) A place or system where a person or business offers services for and gives professional advice to a client. (e.g. Real Estate Agency, where the agent assists the client with purchasing a home). 机构 – Jīgòu

Agent (n.) ~ An individual selected or hired to do to the work for someone else or to represent someone else. 代理人 – Dàilǐ Rén

Amend (v.) ~ Make changes to something. 修改 – Xiūgǎi

Appoint (v.) ~

  1. To select a person or group of people for specific work or for an official job . 委任 –Wěi rèn
  2. To select a specific time or date for an event. 任命 – Rèn mìng

Articles (n.) ~ A written essay or paper discussing or talking about a specific topic. Common examples are Journal Articles, Newspaper Articles, Magazine Articles. 文章 – Wénzhāng

Articles of Incorporation (n.) ~ Sample from the State of California, USA.  This company charter is a set of documents that include all the relevant facts of the corporation and officially creates the company. Information within usually includes name, purpose, address, title and addresses of all officers, name of official representative, information regarding stock, and other significant details required to officially create the company. Unlike some countries, the US Government requires that these Articles be filed with them as part of the Incorporation process. 公司章程 – Gōngsī Zhāngchéng

Assets (n.) ~ Anything valuable or of worth that belongs to the company. Found on the Balance Sheet. 资产 – Zīchǎn

Audit (n./v.) ~ The official examination of the corporations financial accounts and management to ensure good behavior. Good corporations usually arrange to have this done by independent committees or external organizations.  审计 – Shěnjì

Balance of Power (n.) ~ The issue of whether power or authority is equally shared among the people so that no one person or group is stronger than the others. 均势 – Jūnshì权力平衡 – Quánlì Pínghéng

Bar Chart (n.) A way of showing information on a chart 图表. The chart shows the information divided up into rectangles. Each rectangle represents one factor and shows the “amount” of that factor.  Allows readers to compare and contrast different things.    条形图 – Tiáo xíng tú

Image result for bar chart

Benefit (v.) ~ To get or receive something good (an advantage or profit) from something. (e.g. one benefit to working for my company is a good salary). 得益 – Dé yì

Board of Directors (n.)~ A group of people who work inbetween the Executive Staff and Shareholders to make many of the major rules and decisions of the company. 董事会 – Dǒngshìhuì

Business (n.) ~ The process of obtaining the resources you need via trade or an exchange. 交易-Jiāoyì; 商业-shāngyè

Business Practices (n.) ~ The usual methods, procedures, systems, traditions, and rules used by a company in accomplishing its goals. 商业惯例 – Shāngyè guànlì

Buyer (n.) ~ A person who exchanges their money in return for a product. Someone who purchases the product. 买方  – Mǎifāng

Bylaws (n.) ~ A list of rules and articles laying out the company’s operational standpoints that serve to control the behavior of the company and the people involved. 规章制度 – Guīzhāng zhìdù; 章程– Zhāngchéng

Capital (n.) ~ Wealth (usually money, but also includes other assets) used to buy the inputs and materials used in order to create products. The term has different meanings depending on whether you are an accountant, economist, or financial adviser. Often abbreviated 简短的 as “K” in Economics or Finance. 资本 – zī běn 

CEO (n.) ~ See Chief Executive Officer

Certificate (n.) ~ An official document proving something. 证明书 – Zhèngmíng shū

Chairman (n.) ~ The Chief Officer of a company, appointed as the head of the Board of Directors. Responsible for developing corporate policy and supervising  the Executives. 董事长 – Dǒng Shì Zhǎng

Chief Executive Officer (n.) ~ The Chief Executive Officer is the highest-ranked person in a company and head of the Executive Staff. Ultimately responsible for all major management decisions not handled by the Board. 首席执行官 – Shǒuxí zhíxíng guān; 执行总裁 – Zhí háng zǒngcái

Chief Operations Officer (n.) ~ The Chief Operations Officer is a senior executive responsible for the day-to-day operation or actions of the company. 首席运营官 – Shǒuxí yùnyíng guān

Code(s) (n.) ~ A set of laws and regulations dealing with a certain topic. E.g. Uniform Commercial Code, Bylaws (the business code), Employee Code, Dress Code. 法典 – Fǎdiǎn

Committee (n.) ~ A group of people appointed to do something. In business it is usually a managerial or advisory role. 委员会 – Wěiyuánhuì

Conflict (n.) ~ A disagreement or argument between two people or groups. The interests of one group is not the same as the other group, and so they fight.  冲突 – Chōngtú

Conflict of Interest (n.) ~ A problem where someone can use their power wrongfully to benefit themselves to the detriment or loss of those who entrusted them with that power. 利益冲突 – Lìyì chōngtú

Competition (n.) ~ A situation where two or more people are struggling to claim the same resource.  In economics and business, sellers of substitutes are competing for the same buyers. 竞争 – Jìngzhēng

Consumer Surplus (n.) ~ Economic Value – Market Price. The difference between the price the buyer would have paid for a product and the price the buyer did pay for the product.  You can find more information here消费者过剩 – Xiāofèi zhě guòshèng

Contract (n.) ~ A written or spoken promise for two people or parties to do something. In corporations, they usually involve promises to act or behave a certain way in business or trade. 合同– Hétóng

Contribute (v.) ~ To give something (time, money, goods, effort, thoughts, ideas) as part of helping a group accomplish something. (Example – My contribution to the project was the Powerpoint I did)贡献 – Gòngxiàn

Controls (n.) ~ Rules or Restrictions use to limit or regulate something. 管制- Guǎnzhì

COO (n.) ~ See Chief Operations Officer

Copyright (n.) ~ The exclusive right to use something (no one else can use or copy it) given to the creator by law. 版权 – Bǎnquán; 著作权 – zhùzuòquán

Corporate Structure (n.) ~ The system or plan for organizing a corporation’s groups, committees, and people. 公司结构 – Gōngsī Jiégòu

Corporation (n.) ~ A special type of company where 1) it is treated like an individual by the law-with its own rights and obligations; and 2) the employees are protected from most liability because the company is held legally liable rather than the individual owners or employees. 公司-Gōngsī *This term also means “company” – they could not find a lateral translation of “Corporation” as referring to a specific type of legal company.  

Cost-Effective (adv./adj) ~ An action that accomplishes all the required work at the lowest possible cost. 有成本效益的 – Yǒu chéngběn xiàoyì de

Decide (v.) ~ To make a conclusion or final choice about something. 决定 – Juédìng

Decision (n.) ~ A conclusion or final choice about something. 决议 – Juéyì

Delegate (n. | v.) ~ A person authorized or approved to represent or do the work for someone else. Or the act of authorizing or approving someone else to represent or do one’s work. 代表 – Dàibiǎo

Demand Curve (n.) ~ A line showing the relationship between the number of products people want to buy and the price. The demand curve shows how many products are demanded at each price. 需求曲线 – Xūqiú qūxiàn

Director (n.) ~ Member of the Board of Directors which monitors the Executive Staff, works with the Shareholders, and makes some of the most significant decisions about the company’s purpose, values, ethics, goals, major activities, and future. 董事 – Dǒngshì

Discount (n.) ~ How much the seller has decreased the price from its original amount. Tommy changed the price of his bicycles from $400 to $300. This is a 25% discount. 折扣 – Zhékòu

Discount (v.) ~ To lower the price. When the seller lowers the price of a product in order to increase demand, they discount the price. 贱卖 –  jiàn mài

Duration (n.) ~ The length of time during which something happens. 持续的时间 – Chíxù de shíjiān; 期间 – Qíjiān

Economic Value (n.) ~ The maximum price that a buyer would have paid for a product. The demand curve shows the economic value for each quantity. 经济价值 – Jīngjì jiàzhí

Executive (n.) ~ The senior manager or officer in charge of a specific area of the company who is responsible for making and implementing the significant day-to-day decisions. 高管 – Gāo Guǎn

Fee (n.) ~ Money payed to professionals, companies, or the government. 费用 – Fèiyòng

Financial (adj.) ~ Connected to or associated with money or finances. – Cái / 金融 – Jīn róng

Fiscal (adj.) ~ Connected to or associated with money or finances (usually in terms of the cash flow, assets, and liabilities of a company). 财政 – Cái Zhèng

Function (n.) ~ The reason something exists; A person or object’s purpose or job. 功能 – Gōngnéng

Graph (n.) ~ A way of showing the relationship between two factors in a picture or image form.  Two lines, one called “X” and one called “Y,” are each used to represent one factor.  Lines can then be drawn to show the relationship between X and Y as they change.   曲线图 – qū xiàn tú

Image result for line graph

Guidelines (n.) ~ General rules or regulations about how to act or do things. Often used interchangeably with “rules.” 准则 – Zhǔnzé; 指导方针 – zhǐdǎo fāngzhēn

Incorporation (n.) ~ The process or act of creating a legal corporation by following each of the steps required by the Government. These steps usually include 1) Structuring the Company, 2) Creating the Necessary Paperwork, Filing the Forms, Paying all the Required Fees, and Obtaining the Requisite Certifications and Licenses. 创建公司通过服从法律要求– Chuàngjiàn gōngsī tōngguò fúcóng fǎlǜ yāoqiú *Incorporation does not have a lateral translation. Instead, they chose this phrase meaning “Create a legal company by obeying the legal requirements”

Incorporated (adj.) ~ 1. Used to describe a company that has been formed as a legal corporation with all the special rights and obligations of that type of business. Often part of the Company name, abbreviated 简短的 or shortened to “Inc.” *No Good Translation. 2. Bringing all the different pieces and parts together into a whole, finished product. 混合 – Hùnhé

Input (n.) ~ Resources used to create a product . . . technology, labor, raw materials, etc. Only materials used to make the product, not those used to sell, ship, etc.  用于创建产品的资源

Investor (n.) ~ The person who provides money, assets, or resources to the business, usually in return for more money. 投资者 – Tóuzī zhě

Labor (n.) ~ 1Effort. The work you put into something (“Thomas wants a higher salary for his labor“). 劳动 – Láodòng 劳动是人类生产力为改变商品的使用价值和增加商品的价值的实际使用 2(In Economics & Finance) The number of employees (“When Capital is $15, the Labor is 4 employees“). Usually abbreviated 简短的 “L” in mathematical formulas and economic models. 劳动力 – Láodònglì

Labor (v.) ~ To work. To put effort into something.  努力工作 – Nǔlì gōngzuò

Lawful (adj.) ~ Something that obeys or is allowed by the law. Legal. 法定的 – Fǎdìng de

Law of Demand (n.) ~ The rule in economics that says when the price of a product goes up, the quantity demanded will go down. When the price of a product goes down, the quantity demanded will go up.  需求法则 – Xūqiú fǎzé

Legal System (n.) ~ The system a country or organization uses to create, interpret, and enforce its rules.  Enforce means make people obey. 法律体系 – Fǎlǜ tǐxì

Liabilities (n.) ~ All debts or financial obligations a company owes . Found on the Balance Sheet. 负债 – Fùzhài

Loan (n.) ~ Money that A borrows from B and must eventually pay back. Often includes an extra “interest”息 fee.   – Dài

Marginal (adj.) ~ In Business & Economics – A factor of or something that results from small or little changes. Often the profit, cost, or revenue associated with having or making “one more” of something. 边际 – biān jì

Marginal Cost (n.) ~ The cost that comes when you make one more product. 边际成本 – biān jì chéng běn

Marginal Profit (n.) ~ The profit (revenue – cost) that comes when you make one more product. 边际利润 – Biān jì lì rùn

Marginal Revenue (n.) ~ The revenue that comes when you make one more product. 边际报酬 – biān jì bào chóu

Manager (n.) ~ The person responsible for controlling, leading, monitoring, and disciplining a certain group of people or the actions of a certain part of the company. 经理 – Jīnglǐ

Market (n.) ~ A location where individuals and companies come together for the purpose of doing trade and business. 市场 – Shìchǎng

Market Demand (n.) ~ The total number of products that all buyers require.  Usually shown on a Market Demand Curve demonstrating the relationship between the total quantity demanded and the price. You can find more information here市场需求 – Shìchǎng xūqiú

Market Price (n.) ~ The price of a product when it is sold / The price a buyer pays for a product and a seller gets for a product. 市场价格 – Shìchǎng jiàgé

Member (n.) ~ Someone who has fulfilled all the requirements and been accepted into the group. (Example – “I am a member of the Wēixìn Group for my class”)  会员 – Huìyuán

Membership (n.) ~ One’s position as part of a group. The fact that someone has fulfilled all the requirements and been accepted into a specific group. (Example – “I have a membership with the gym.”) 会籍 – Huì Jí / 会员资格 – Huìyuán Zīgé

Minimum (n.) ~ The lowest possible amount of something. 最低限度 – Zuìdī Xiàndù

Monitor (v.) ~ To observe or watch over something or someone to make sure everything is done properly. 监视 – Jiānshì

Mutual (adj./adv.) ~ Something found in common between two or more people. Often use in terms of shared opinions or feelings.  相互 – Xiānghù; 共有的 – Gòngyǒu de

Negative Correlation (n.) The situation when two things (X & Y) are related to one another so that if X increases, Y decreases. If X decreases, Y increases. (X & Y go in opposite directions)  In economics, we often say two things are “inversely related” if there is a negative correlation. For example, if Price goes up then Quantity Demanded will go down. There is a negative correlation and they are inversely related. 负相关– Fù xiāngguān

Nominate (v.) ~ To advise or recommend something, especially an action to take in the future or a person for a job. 提名 – Tímíng

Nomination (n.) ~ The official recommendation or suggestion that someone deserves a specific job. 提名 – Tímíng

Officer (n.) ~ A person holding a position of authority.  – Guān

Output (n.) ~ The number of products created. 产量 – Chǎnliàng

Owner (n.)  ~ A person who has possession of all the rights to use, claim, and/or profit from something. 所有者 – Suǒyǒu zhě

Ownership (n. / adj.) ~ The quality of possessing or having all the rights to use, claim, and/or profit from something.  所有权 – Suǒyǒuquán

Perfect Competition Market (n) ~ A market or industry where there are many buyers and many sellers. All are competing with each other for the best price in a market where there are many substitutes and the products are pretty similar. Companies in these markets have low market power and are usually price-taking. 完美的竞争 – Wánměi de jìngzhēng

Performance (n.) ~ The way someone does their work. When reviewed by others, performance is usually judged by its effectiveness and efficiency. (Example – Your performance was very good; you did the job quickly and correctly). 绩效 – Jīxiào

Pie Chart (n.) ~ A way of showing information on a chart 图表. The chart is a circle divided into pieces, each representing a percent (%) of the whole “pie. 饼形图 – Bǐng xíng tú

Image result for pie chart

Positive Correlation (n.) ~ The situation when two things (X & Y) are related to one another so that if X increases, Y also increases. If X decreases, Y also decreases. (X & Y change in the same direction). In economics, we often say two things are “directly related” if there is a positive correlation. For example, if Price goes up then Quantity Supplied will go up as well. There is a positive correlation and they are directly related. 正相关 – Zhèng xiāngguān

Principal (n.) ~ The most important or senior person. The owner / client / employer. The person who hires other people to be their agents or delegates. 首长 – Shǒuzhǎng

Producer Surplus (n.) ~ The difference between the price the seller would have accepted for a product and the price the seller actually got for the product.   Price the seller would have accepted – Market Price.    生产者剩余 – Shēngchǎn zhě shèngyú

Purpose (n.) ~ The reason why something is done or why something exists. The Function. 目的 – Mùdì

Quantity (n.) ~ The specific amount of something. Answers the question: “How Much.” 空头 – Kōng tóu.

Rate (n.) ~ 1. The speed at which something happens. For example the “Turnover Rate” 周转率 can tell us how often employees leave a company and new ones have to be hired. 率 – lǜ  2. The percentage of X compared to Y. For example, the “Tax Rate” is how much of the Revenue (Y) is used for Taxes (X). 比率 – bǐ lǜ

Registered (adj.) ~ Added to the official government record or listing of corporations. 注册 – Zhùcè

Relationship (n.) ~ The correlation or link tying two people or things together. 关系 – Guānxì

Relevant (adj.) ~ Directly linked to or important to the issue being considered (Example – Whether or not the product test is successful is relevant to whether we sell it this year or not). 相应 – Xiāng yìng

Remuneration (n.) ~ The payment or reward a person gets for doing their job. 报酬 – Bàochóu

Report (n.) ~ A detailed account or explanation (written or spoken) about the person, group, or company’s activities, work, situation, research, etc汇报 – Huìbào

Report (v.) ~ To give the report to the audience. 报告 – Bàogào

Representative (n.) ~ A person chosen to stand for and speak on behalf of a group. 代表 -Dàibiǎo

Review (v.) ~ To examine or look over something to make sure it is correct, complete, adequate, or that you understand it. 回顾 – Huígù 

Risk (n.) ~ Something that puts important or valuable items in danger of being destroyed, damaged, or lost. 风险 – Fēngxiǎn

Scatter Plot (n.) A way of showing information on a chart or graph. A “Scatter Plot” is a graph where the information does not make a straight line 直线. Instead it is “scattered” (疏散) around the graph. 散点图 – Sàn diǎn tú

Image result for scatter plot

Secretary (n.) ~ The person chosen to handle most communication, record-keeping, managing the calendar, and carrying out other daily tasks. 秘书 – Mìshū

Self-Interest (n.) ~ Caring about oneself; thinking about one’s own benefits or costs. The desire to get benefits or advantages for oneself. 私心 – Sīxīn

Seller (n.) ~ Someone who offers a product in exchange for money. The person or company presenting a produce on the market for purchase. 卖家 – Màijiā

Shares (n.) ~ When part of a company’s ownership is divided into equal portions, each portion is called a share. Each share gives the owner part of the ownership, profits, and a vote. A piece of the Stock.  – Gǔ

Shareholder (n.) ~ A person or company who owns a piece or share of a company. There can be Majority Shareholders and Minority Shareholders. 股东 – Gǔdōng

Short Sell (v.) ~ X borrows stock from a stock broker, sells the stock, buys it back, and then returns the stock to the stock broker. 卖空 – Mài kōng

Signature  (n.) ~ A person’s name written in a special unique way so that the name can be a form of identification or a tool for authorization. 签名 – Qiānmíng

Social Surplus (n.) ~ Consumer Surplus + Producer Surplus.  The total savings of both the buyer and the sellers in a trade.  社会顺差 – Shèhuì shùnchā

Stakeholder (n.) ~ Any person or organization who has an interest in something. This means they will somehow benefit or suffer because of that thing. In business, stakeholders are the people or organizations that benefit or suffer depending on the behavior of the business. Examples include owners, employees, suppliers, society, the government, partners, etc. 利益相关者 – Lìyì xiāngguān zhě

Stewardship (n.) ~ Properly managing, controlling, and using something. *Hard to translate, best one they could find = 管理工作 – Guǎnlǐ gōngzuò

Stock (n.) ~ 1. The company as a whole including all its votes, profit, and ownership – divided and sold in shares. 2. The money the company gets by selling shares. 股票 – Gǔpiào

Stockbroker (n.) ~ Someone who buys and sells stocks (a middleman – 中间人).  证券经纪人 – Zhèngquàn jīngjì rén

Stock Certificate (n.) ~ An official document proving that a person or company owns a certain amount of company stock. 股权证书 – Gǔquán zhèngshū

Stock Market (n.) ~ A place (either a physical market or an online market) where buyers and sellers trade in company shares.  股市 – gǔ shì

Stock Price (n.) ~ The cost of purchasing one share (股of a company. 股价 – Gǔjià

Strategy (n.) ~ A plan or method of accomplishing something. 战略 – Zhànlüè

Substitution (v.) ~ Using one thing instead of another. Replacing X with Y. 取代 – Qǔdài

Theory (n.) ~  An answer to a problem or an explanation about how something works. 学说 – Xuéshuō

Total Consumer Surplus (n.) ~ Draw a triangle using the Demand Curve and the Market Price.  Total Consumer Surplus is the area of that triangle.  It is the total savings of all the buyers on the market. See Consumer Surplus.   You can find more information here. 消费者剩余总额 – Xiāofèi zhě shèngyú zǒng’é

Trademark (n.) ~ A Trademark is any arrangement of words or images intended to set the products of one company apart so people can recognize the produce by seeing those words or images. 商标 – Shāngbiāo

Transaction (n.) ~ The exchange or trade of one thing for something else. Each completed trade is one transaction. 交易 – Jiāoyì

Treasurer (n.) ~ A person selected to manage the financial matters of a group or company. Their main job is to advise the Board and/or Executive Staff about financial policies, finding investors and moneys to finance the company, managing company investments, and handing future financial risks. 财务主管 – Cáiwù zhǔguǎn

Voluntary (adj. | adv.) ~ Willingly or freely done; no force is involved. 自愿地做的工作 – Zìyuàn de zuò de gōngzuò

One Response to “Business Terms with Chinese Trans.”


  1. Corporate Governance Vocabulary | Deceptively Blonde - January 19, 2016


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