Tag Archives: Language

Not Quite What I expected. . .

31 Jul

Adventures in #Translation!
Tried ordering an iced tea and cola. Pointed to iced tea picture . . . waited then said ‘Bing #Cola’ (Iced Cola). She looks at me funny, but says ‘ok!’ Hands me a cola in the tea glass. 😜😜 Had to go back and get the tea – too funny!

#Business Vocabulary ~ #Economies of Scope and Scale

27 May

As always, this lesson is not intended to be professional advice. This is simply lesson material for ESL students in Business, Economics, and Finance classes. Posted here for their use or for helping other students.

Unlike Short-Term (短期) Planning, Long-Term (长期) operates on different goals (目标), strategies (战略), and analyses (分析).  

Business.jpg

Two common goals are very important: Economies of Scale and Economies of Scope. Continue reading

Chinese 101 ~ I Love You!

10 May

I (我) Love (爱) You (你) = Wǒ ài nǐ = 我爱你

I Love You

Writing Hangul -ㄹ

1 Dec

“R / L” (ㄹ)
3 STROKES 

First – Start on the top left and make a long horizontal line. Then (WITHOUT PICKING UP YOUR PEN!) pull a short vertical line down.  Basically, you are forming the “Hangul G.” You see this a lot in Hangul, where on character is used to form another. g1

Second – Starting on the left, form a long horizontal line that connects to the first stroke.  You are kind of making a backwards, upside down  ㄷ. 🙂 

R2.png

Third. Starting on the top left of stroke two, go down forming a short vertical line. Then (WITHOUT PICKING UP YOUR PEN!) make a second long horizontal line.  Basically makes a Hangul “N”

n4

FINAL

R3.png

r1

EXAMPLES (FROM TOP 6000TOPIK WORDS)

  • 우리 (Uli) = We / Our
  • 모르다 (Moleuda) = To not know
  • 물 (Mul) = Water

Writing Hiragana – え

30 Nov

“E” OR “え” SAYS “short e sound as in egg”
2 STROKES 

The First stroke belongs in the upper middle of the character. Starting on the left, make a very small sloped line downwards. 

eh-1

Sometimes, you might see this line with a small side-stroke back towards the left. These characters were originally written with a brush, and this was just a small pull sideways that gave it flair. It shouldn’t be too deliberate – more a fast pull than anything.

eh-2

Second, below the first line and without picking up your pen! Start by making a sloping-upwards line. Then pull your pen down quickly in a slight diagonal. Drag it back up again about 1/2 way. Then pull off into a sloping “s” shape.

Kind of like a slanted “h” with a fancy top and a hooked end

eh-3

Pay attention to proportions – note that Step 2 ends up close to where Step 1 started. Step 3 pulls off at close to where Step 1 started.  The hook on Step 4 goes below Step 2. 

Eh 7.png

Final Version of This Part: 
eh-4

FINAL

EXAMPLES (FROM TOP 1000 JAPANESE WORDS)

  • かえる (Kaeru) = Frog
  • いえ (Ie) = House / Home
  • えんぴつ (Enpitsu) = Pencil

Writing Hangul -ㄷ

29 Nov

“D/T” (ㄷ)
2 STROKES 

First – Start on the top left and make a long horizontal line. 

g-1

Second – Starting on the top left of your line, go down forming a short vertical line. Then (without picking up your pen) make a second long horizontal line.  Basically makes a Hangul “N”. You see this a lot in Hangul – one character being used to form another.

n4

FINAL

d1

d2

 

EXAMPLES (FROM TOP 6000 TOPIK WORDS)

  • 싶다 (Sipda) = To Want / To Hope
  • 나다 (Nada) = To be Born
  • 대통령 (Daetongryeong) = The President

Writing Hangul – ㄴ

27 Nov

“N” (ㄴ)
1 STROKE (DON’T PICK UP YOUR PEN AT ALL)

Start on the top left and make a short vertical line, then bring your pen right to make the longer horizontal line .

n4

FINAL

n1

EXAMPLES (FROM TOP 6000 TOPIK WORDS)

  • 원(Weon) = KRW (Korean Money)
  • 인간 (Ingan) = Human Being
  • 눈 (Nun) = Eyes

Writing Hiragana – い

26 Nov

“I” OR “い” SAYS “EE”
2 STROKES 

The first stroke looks a little like a fish hook (but not quite written that way). Make a slightly curved vertical line down, then (without picking up your pen) give it a small up-stroke. These characters were originally written with a brush, and this was just a small pull upwards that gave it flair. It shouldn’t be too deliberate – more a fast pull than anything.

i1

Second, on the right – make a vertical line downwards slightly curved to the left.

i2FINAL

i3

EXAMPLES (FROM TOP 1000 JAPANESE WORDS)

  • しかい (Shikai) = Dentist
  • せんせい (Sensei) = Teacher
  • い (i) = Stomach

Hangul Pronunciation

14 Nov

HANGUL PRONUNCIATION CHEAT SHEET ($1)

hangul-product

Clearly Organized

Explanatory

Infographic-based PDF

Outlines the Hangul Pronunciation Rules (including Batchim, Double Consonants, Double Vowels, and more).  Everything carefully designed to include examples, pattern-building organization of letters, and other tricks intended to help you see how the language is built into the blocks.

Also Includes a simple cheat sheet on the Hangul (Korean) Pronunciation rules. If you want to learn more, this cheat sheet is perfect for you.  

Includes

  • specific pronunciation rules for each letter, dipthong, and combination
  • how to pronounce and differentiate difficult letters and sounds
  • the difference between the normal, aspirated, and tense letters that confuse so many learners.
  • the rules for double consonants
  • Re-syllabification, Consonant Assimilation, Tensification, and more.

All rules are simplified and stated clearly to ease understanding. Each rule or instruction includes Korean and Romanized examples for you to use as a starting point. 

Although Korean letters look simple when you first start, it soon becomes obvious that correct pronunciation can be very complex.  However, if you follow this cheat sheet, you should start to master it very soon!

Hiragana

28 Oct

Japanese has three separate writing systems – Hiragana, Katakana, and Kanji. Their usage depends largely on the origin of the word. Kanji are the Sino-Japanese words that descend from China and use the simplified Chinese characters. Katakana incorporates many other foreign words, and not just English words! Then Hiragana is the predominant written form for everything else. Hiragana is by far the most common written form, although both Katakana and Kanji will be intermixed in most sentences.  So Hiragana is the first one usually taught to new Japanese students. Thankfully, it is easier to write and remember than the Kanji, having been simplified a lot time ago. So although it might take some time to memorize this many characters, it shouldn’t be too hard to learn!

Hiragana is read phonetically, and most of the letters can be replicated in English. Each “character” represents a sound, with all but one (‘ん’ ‘N’) including a vowel sound. There are 71 separate sounds but only 46 characters in total – one single consonant, five vowels, and forty combination sounds. 

PRONUNCIATION RULES

  1. ( ゛) = Dakuten, put on the top right of the character. Shows that a character is changing from unvoiced (き is ki) to voiced (ぎ is gi) 
  2. は (ha) is said as (wa) when it comes by itself or is after the topic of the sentence. For example, watashi wa (I am) is spelled 私は.
  3. The characters や (ya), よ (yo), and ゆ (yu) can be added to a character that ends in the (i) sound. If so, the (i) is silent. For example, if ぎ (gi) is added to や (ya), it will be pronounced as ぎや (gya).

  4. Doubled vowels (as in おにいさん | oni’isan | big brother) are demonstrated by adding an extra vowel. に (Ni) is lengthened by adding the extra い (i) to form ni’i.  For the doubled vowel (o), either う or お might be added – it depends on the word.

  5. Doubled consonants (as in にっぽん | Nippon) are created by adding a ‘small’ (Tsu) or っ right before the consonant. It is actually smaller in size than the character Tsu (つっ – see the difference).  You don’t actually pronounce the small Tsu. For example, in Japanese, ‘begging’ would be written ‘beっging.’

  6. The only exception are the doubled -n characters (na, ni, no, nu, ne). They are doubled by adding ん (an extra n) before the n.

  7. On the other hand っ (‘small tsu) can also be added at the end of a word to suggest stronger emotions. Rather like a !.  However, when they do that, it seems to often suggest stronger emotions that are not quite strong enough for a (!).  For example, if I’m talking to a child, “you’re so silly っ” might be used versus “you’re such an idiot!” to someone who just caused a lot of trouble by doing something stupid. In that case, it is also no pronounced.

  8. If the vowels (i) and (u) are in between (k), (s), (t), (p), (h) or if the come after one of those at the end of a sentence, then the (i) or (u) may be silent.  For example, ですね (desu ne) is often said (des ne). 
  9. If へ (he) comes after a location, the (h) is silent and it says (e).

  10. The Japanese (r) is similar to that of China and Korea. Put your tongue in the (L) position but say (R).  If you listen, it comes out a little differently from the English (r) sound. 

CHARACTERS

あ (a) え (e) い (i) お (o) う (u)
だ (da) で (de) ぢ (ji) ど (do) づ (zu)
た (ta) て (te) ち (chi) と (to) つ (tsu)
が (ga) げ (ge) ぎ (gi) ご (go) ぐ (gu)
は (ha) へ (he) ひ (hi) ほ (ho) ふ (fu)
ば (ba) べ (be) び (bi) ぼ (bo) ぶ (bu)
ぱ (pa) ぺ (pe) ぴ (pi) ぽ (po) ぺ (pu)
か (ka) け (ke) き (ki) こ (ko) く (ku)
ま (ma) め (me) み (mi) も (mo) む (mu)
ん (n)
な (na) ね (ne) に (ni) の (no) ぬ (nu)
ら (ra) れ (re) り (ri) ろ (ro) る (ru)
さ (sa) せ (se) し (shi) そ (so) す (su)
ざ (za) ぜ (ze) じ (ji) ぞ (zo) ず (zu)
わ (wa) を (wo)
や (ya) よ (yo) ゆ (yu)

-Y COMBOS

 Note the lack of a (y) in the sh-, ch-, and j- combos.

びゃ (bya) びょ (byo) びゅ (byu)
ぴゃ (pya) ぴょ (pyo) ぴゅ (pyu)
ひゃ (hya) ひょ (hyo) ひゅ (hyu)
ぎゃ (gya) ぎょ (gyo) ぎゅ (gyu)
きゃ (kya) きょ (kyo) きゅ (kyu)
にゃ (nya) にょ (nyo) にゅ (nyu)
みゃ (mya) みょ (myo) みゅ (myu)
りゃ (rya) りょ (ryo) りゅ (ryu)
しゃ (sha) しょ (sho) しゅ (shu)
じゃ (ja) じょ (jo) じゅ (ju)
ちゃ (cha) ちょ (cho) ちゅ (chu)
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