Tag Archives: Language

#Business Vocabulary ~ #Economies of Scope and Scale

27 May

As always, this lesson is not intended to be professional advice. This is simply lesson material for ESL students in Business, Economics, and Finance classes. Posted here for their use or for helping other students.

Unlike Short-Term (短期) Planning, Long-Term (长期) operates on different goals (目标), strategies (战略), and analyses (分析).  

Business.jpg

Two common goals are very important: Economies of Scale and Economies of Scope. Continue reading

Chinese 101 ~ I Love You!

10 May

I (我) Love (爱) You (你) = Wǒ ài nǐ = 我爱你

I Love You

Writing Hangul -ㄹ

1 Dec

“R / L” (ㄹ)
3 STROKES 

First – Start on the top left and make a long horizontal line. Then (WITHOUT PICKING UP YOUR PEN!) pull a short vertical line down.  Basically, you are forming the “Hangul G.” You see this a lot in Hangul, where on character is used to form another. g1

Second – Starting on the left, form a long horizontal line that connects to the first stroke.  You are kind of making a backwards, upside down  ㄷ. 🙂 

R2.png

Third. Starting on the top left of stroke two, go down forming a short vertical line. Then (WITHOUT PICKING UP YOUR PEN!) make a second long horizontal line.  Basically makes a Hangul “N”

n4

FINAL

R3.png

r1

EXAMPLES (FROM TOP 6000TOPIK WORDS)

  • 우리 (Uli) = We / Our
  • 모르다 (Moleuda) = To not know
  • 물 (Mul) = Water

Writing Hiragana – え

30 Nov

“E” OR “え” SAYS “short e sound as in egg”
2 STROKES 

The First stroke belongs in the upper middle of the character. Starting on the left, make a very small sloped line downwards. 

eh-1

Sometimes, you might see this line with a small side-stroke back towards the left. These characters were originally written with a brush, and this was just a small pull sideways that gave it flair. It shouldn’t be too deliberate – more a fast pull than anything.

eh-2

Second, below the first line and without picking up your pen! Start by making a sloping-upwards line. Then pull your pen down quickly in a slight diagonal. Drag it back up again about 1/2 way. Then pull off into a sloping “s” shape.

Kind of like a slanted “h” with a fancy top and a hooked end

eh-3

Pay attention to proportions – note that Step 2 ends up close to where Step 1 started. Step 3 pulls off at close to where Step 1 started.  The hook on Step 4 goes below Step 2. 

Eh 7.png

Final Version of This Part: 
eh-4

FINAL

EXAMPLES (FROM TOP 1000 JAPANESE WORDS)

  • かえる (Kaeru) = Frog
  • いえ (Ie) = House / Home
  • えんぴつ (Enpitsu) = Pencil

Writing Hangul -ㄷ

29 Nov

“D/T” (ㄷ)
2 STROKES 

First – Start on the top left and make a long horizontal line. 

g-1

Second – Starting on the top left of your line, go down forming a short vertical line. Then (without picking up your pen) make a second long horizontal line.  Basically makes a Hangul “N”. You see this a lot in Hangul – one character being used to form another.

n4

FINAL

d1

d2

 

EXAMPLES (FROM TOP 6000 TOPIK WORDS)

  • 싶다 (Sipda) = To Want / To Hope
  • 나다 (Nada) = To be Born
  • 대통령 (Daetongryeong) = The President

Writing Hangul – ㄴ

27 Nov

“N” (ㄴ)
1 STROKE (DON’T PICK UP YOUR PEN AT ALL)

Start on the top left and make a short vertical line, then bring your pen right to make the longer horizontal line .

n4

FINAL

n1

EXAMPLES (FROM TOP 6000 TOPIK WORDS)

  • 원(Weon) = KRW (Korean Money)
  • 인간 (Ingan) = Human Being
  • 눈 (Nun) = Eyes

Writing Hiragana – い

26 Nov

“I” OR “い” SAYS “EE”
2 STROKES 

The first stroke looks a little like a fish hook (but not quite written that way). Make a slightly curved vertical line down, then (without picking up your pen) give it a small up-stroke. These characters were originally written with a brush, and this was just a small pull upwards that gave it flair. It shouldn’t be too deliberate – more a fast pull than anything.

i1

Second, on the right – make a vertical line downwards slightly curved to the left.

i2FINAL

i3

EXAMPLES (FROM TOP 1000 JAPANESE WORDS)

  • しかい (Shikai) = Dentist
  • せんせい (Sensei) = Teacher
  • い (i) = Stomach

Hangul Pronunciation

14 Nov

HANGUL PRONUNCIATION CHEAT SHEET ($1)

hangul-product

Clearly Organized

Explanatory

Infographic-based PDF

Outlines the Hangul Pronunciation Rules (including Batchim, Double Consonants, Double Vowels, and more).  Everything carefully designed to include examples, pattern-building organization of letters, and other tricks intended to help you see how the language is built into the blocks.

Also Includes a simple cheat sheet on the Hangul (Korean) Pronunciation rules. If you want to learn more, this cheat sheet is perfect for you.  

Includes

  • specific pronunciation rules for each letter, dipthong, and combination
  • how to pronounce and differentiate difficult letters and sounds
  • the difference between the normal, aspirated, and tense letters that confuse so many learners.
  • the rules for double consonants
  • Re-syllabification, Consonant Assimilation, Tensification, and more.

All rules are simplified and stated clearly to ease understanding. Each rule or instruction includes Korean and Romanized examples for you to use as a starting point. 

Although Korean letters look simple when you first start, it soon becomes obvious that correct pronunciation can be very complex.  However, if you follow this cheat sheet, you should start to master it very soon!

Hiragana

28 Oct

Japanese has three separate writing systems – Hiragana, Katakana, and Kanji. Their usage depends largely on the origin of the word. Kanji are the Sino-Japanese words that descend from China and use the simplified Chinese characters. Katakana incorporates many other foreign words, and not just English words! Then Hiragana is the predominant written form for everything else. Hiragana is by far the most common written form, although both Katakana and Kanji will be intermixed in most sentences.  So Hiragana is the first one usually taught to new Japanese students. Thankfully, it is easier to write and remember than the Kanji, having been simplified a lot time ago. So although it might take some time to memorize this many characters, it shouldn’t be too hard to learn!

Hiragana is read phonetically, and most of the letters can be replicated in English. Each “character” represents a sound, with all but one (‘ん’ ‘N’) including a vowel sound. There are 71 separate sounds but only 46 characters in total – one single consonant, five vowels, and forty combination sounds. 

PRONUNCIATION RULES

  1. ( ゛) = Dakuten, put on the top right of the character. Shows that a character is changing from unvoiced (き is ki) to voiced (ぎ is gi) 
  2. は (ha) is said as (wa) when it comes by itself or is after the topic of the sentence. For example, watashi wa (I am) is spelled 私は.
  3. The characters や (ya), よ (yo), and ゆ (yu) can be added to a character that ends in the (i) sound. If so, the (i) is silent. For example, if ぎ (gi) is added to や (ya), it will be pronounced as ぎや (gya).

  4. Doubled vowels (as in おにいさん | oni’isan | big brother) are demonstrated by adding an extra vowel. に (Ni) is lengthened by adding the extra い (i) to form ni’i.  For the doubled vowel (o), either う or お might be added – it depends on the word.

  5. Doubled consonants (as in にっぽん | Nippon) are created by adding a ‘small’ (Tsu) or っ right before the consonant. It is actually smaller in size than the character Tsu (つっ – see the difference).  You don’t actually pronounce the small Tsu. For example, in Japanese, ‘begging’ would be written ‘beっging.’

  6. The only exception are the doubled -n characters (na, ni, no, nu, ne). They are doubled by adding ん (an extra n) before the n.

  7. On the other hand っ (‘small tsu) can also be added at the end of a word to suggest stronger emotions. Rather like a !.  However, when they do that, it seems to often suggest stronger emotions that are not quite strong enough for a (!).  For example, if I’m talking to a child, “you’re so silly っ” might be used versus “you’re such an idiot!” to someone who just caused a lot of trouble by doing something stupid. In that case, it is also no pronounced.

  8. If the vowels (i) and (u) are in between (k), (s), (t), (p), (h) or if the come after one of those at the end of a sentence, then the (i) or (u) may be silent.  For example, ですね (desu ne) is often said (des ne). 
  9. If へ (he) comes after a location, the (h) is silent and it says (e).

  10. The Japanese (r) is similar to that of China and Korea. Put your tongue in the (L) position but say (R).  If you listen, it comes out a little differently from the English (r) sound. 

CHARACTERS

あ (a) え (e) い (i) お (o) う (u)
だ (da) で (de) ぢ (ji) ど (do) づ (zu)
た (ta) て (te) ち (chi) と (to) つ (tsu)
が (ga) げ (ge) ぎ (gi) ご (go) ぐ (gu)
は (ha) へ (he) ひ (hi) ほ (ho) ふ (fu)
ば (ba) べ (be) び (bi) ぼ (bo) ぶ (bu)
ぱ (pa) ぺ (pe) ぴ (pi) ぽ (po) ぺ (pu)
か (ka) け (ke) き (ki) こ (ko) く (ku)
ま (ma) め (me) み (mi) も (mo) む (mu)
ん (n)
な (na) ね (ne) に (ni) の (no) ぬ (nu)
ら (ra) れ (re) り (ri) ろ (ro) る (ru)
さ (sa) せ (se) し (shi) そ (so) す (su)
ざ (za) ぜ (ze) じ (ji) ぞ (zo) ず (zu)
わ (wa) を (wo)
や (ya) よ (yo) ゆ (yu)

-Y COMBOS

 Note the lack of a (y) in the sh-, ch-, and j- combos.

びゃ (bya) びょ (byo) びゅ (byu)
ぴゃ (pya) ぴょ (pyo) ぴゅ (pyu)
ひゃ (hya) ひょ (hyo) ひゅ (hyu)
ぎゃ (gya) ぎょ (gyo) ぎゅ (gyu)
きゃ (kya) きょ (kyo) きゅ (kyu)
にゃ (nya) にょ (nyo) にゅ (nyu)
みゃ (mya) みょ (myo) みゅ (myu)
りゃ (rya) りょ (ryo) りゅ (ryu)
しゃ (sha) しょ (sho) しゅ (shu)
じゃ (ja) じょ (jo) じゅ (ju)
ちゃ (cha) ちょ (cho) ちゅ (chu)

Sino-Japanese Numbers

25 Oct

The following includes the Sino-Japanese Numbers used in Japanese for many number-related issues. In appearance, they are the same as those used in Mandarin Chinese, in fact that is where the characters were borrowed from (Sino – meaning “Chinese”). Thus, the numbers are in fact a part of the Kanji writing system.  

While Sino-Japanese numbers are more common according to my Japanese friends, the traditional Japanese numbers are still occasionally used and it is good to memorize the numbers 1-10 in traditional form as well. 

Also notice that the number 4 (shi) can sound like a bad word in Japanese (shi sounds like ‘death’), so it is replaced with the traditional number “yon”. And number 7 (nana) can also be replaced with the traditional number “shichi” depending on the usage.

SEPARATE WORDS YOU MUST MEMORIZE

Number Name Kanji
1 ichi
2 ni
3 san
4 shi/yon*
5 go
6 roku
7 shichi/nana*
8 hachi
9 kyū
10
100 hyaku*/ichi hyaku
1000 sen/issen*
10,000 man / ichiman
100,000,000 oku
1,000,000,000,000 chō

COUNTING THROUGH ONE TRILLION

Although my examples below use spacing to help you see the numbers laid out more easily, the Japanese will often just combine the numbers into one long string. For example, my Japanese friends would write 2109  as nisenhyakukyū if they wrote it out in Romaji. 

**Please notice that the numbers 300 (sanbyaku), 600 (roppyaku), and 800 (happyaku) are different from the usual formula of Number + Hyaku. Not sure why, my Japanese teacher didn’t explain 🙂 I just know that this is true.

Number Name Kanji
1 ichi
2 ni
3 san
4 shi/yon*
5 go
6 roku
7 shichi/nana*
8 hachi
9 kyū
10
11 jūichi 十一
12 jūni 十二
13 jūsan 十三
20 nijū 二十
30 sanjū 三十
40 yonjū 四十
50 gojū 五十
60 rokujū 六十
70 nanajū 七十
80 hachijū 八十
90 kyūjū 九十
100 hyaku*/ichi hyaku
200 nihyaku 二百
300 sanByaku *note the change 三百
600 roPPyaku *note the change 六百
800 haPPyaku *note the change 八百
1000 sen/issen*
10,000 man / ichiman
100,000 jūman 十万
1,000,000 hyakuman 百万
10,000,000 senman 千万
100,000,000 oku
1,000,000,000 jūoku 十億
10,000,000,000 hyaku oku 百億
100,000,000,000 senoku 千億
1,000,000,000,000 chō

***Please notice that while in English, we count in 1,000s — the Japanese (and Chinese) count in 10,000s.  So in English, we learn one thousand (1,000), ten thousand (10,000), one hundred thousand (100,000), one million (1,000,000), and ten million (10,000,000). But in Japanese, they learn sen (1,000), man (10,000), jūman (100,000), and hyakuman (1,000,000), senman (10,000,000).  Notice that jū(man), hyaku(man), and sen(man)  are all  multiples of 10,000 (Japanese) instead of 1,000 (English).   

Number English Japanese
10 ten jū (ten)
100 one hundred hyaku (hundred)
1000 one thousand sen (thousand)
1,0000 ten-thousand man (ten-thousand)
10,0000 one-hundred thousand jūman (ten man or ten ten-thousands)
100,0000 one million hyakuman (one-hundred man)
1000,0000 ten million senman (one-thousand man)
1,0000,0000 one-hundred million oku (one oku)
10,0000,0000 one billion jūoku (ten oku)

Because of this, you can often see them mark numbers as 1,0000 with the comma after the ten-thousands.  For example 1,0000 instead of 10,000.

PRACTICE

Here are examples of every number through ten million (follow same pattern if going farther)

Number Name Kanji
21 nijū ichi 二十一
32 sanjū ni 三十二
43 yonjū san 四十三
54 gojū yon 五十四
65 rokujū go 六十五
76 nanajū roku 七十六
87 hachijū nana 八十七
98 kyūjū hachi 九十八
109 hyaku kyū 百九
219 nihyaku jūkyū 二百十九
329 sanByaku nijū kyū *note the change 三百二十九
439 yonhyaku sanjū kyū 四百三十九
549 gohyaku yonjū kyū 五百四十九
659 roPPyaku gojū kyū *note the change 六百五十九
769 nanahyaku rokujū kyū 七百六十九
879 haPPyaku nanajū kyū *note the change 八百七十九
989 kyūhyaku hachijū kyū 九百八十九
2001 nisen ichi 二千一
3010 sansen jū 三千十
4100 yonsen hyaku 四千百
5210 gosen nihyaku jū 五千二百十
6222 rokusen nihyaku nijū ni 六千二百二十二
20,003 niman san 二万三
30,033 sanman sanjū san 三万三十三
40,333 yonman sanbyaku sanjū san 四万三百三十三
53,333 goman sansen sanbyaku sanjū san 五万三千三百三十三
140,000 jūyonman 十四万
400,000 yonjūman 四十万
654,321 rokujūgo man yonsen sanbyaku nijū ichi 六十五万四千三百二十一
7,654,321 nanahyaku rokujūgo man yonsen sanbyaku nijū ichi 七百六十五万四千三百二十一
87,654,321 hachisen nanahyaku rokujūgo man yonsen sanbyaku nijū ichi 八千七百六十五万四千三百二十一
%d bloggers like this: