Tag Archives: Vocabulary

#Business and #Economics ~ What is Short Selling

25 Oct

As always, this lesson is not intended to be professional advice. This is simply lesson material for ESL students in an introductory Economics and Finance class. Posted here for their use or for helping other students. 

Part #1 ~ Vocabulary

  • Short Sell (v.) ~ X borrows stock from a stock broker, sells the stock, buys it back, and then returns the stock to the stock broker. 卖空 – Mài kōng
  • Stockbroker (n.) ~ Someone who buys and sells stocks (a middleman – 中间人). 证券经纪人 – Zhèngquàn jīngjì rén
  • Shares (n.) When part of a company’s ownership is divided into equal portions, each portion is called a share. Each share gives the owner part of the ownership, profits, and a vote. A piece of the Stock.  – Gǔ
  • Loan (n.) ~ Money that A borrows from B and must eventually pay back. Often includes an extra “interest”息 fee.  – Dài
  • Stock price (n.) ~ The cost of purchasing one share (股of a company. 股价 – Gǔjià
  • Stock Market (n.) ~ A place (either a physical market or an online market) where buyers and sellers trade in company shares. 股市 – gǔ shì

Part #2 ~ What is Short Selling

Short selling is where:

  1. Step 1: You borrow 借 some shares 股份 of Company A from your broker (证券经纪人). Notice that you did NOT buy, so it is similar to a loan. You must pay the broker back the money for the stock later. 
  2. Step 2: You sell the stock to someone else. 
  3. Step 3: You buy the stock back again and give it back to the broker. 

Part #3 ~ Why or Why Not Short Sell?

If you short sell correctly and are successful, you can make a lot of money doing this. 

But if you want to make money, then the stock price 股价 must go down between Step 2 and Step 3. 

If the stock price 股价 goes up between Step 2 and Step 3, you will lose money.

If you buy long, you just use your own money to buy the stock. 

Part #4 ~ Examples 

Marilyn’s Flowers (ABCD) is selling their shares at $25 for one share. 

Michael believes that the price of ABCD’s shares is inflated (充气) and is too high right now. The shares are not worth that much money. He also believes the price is going todecrease in the future (usually very soon). 

Samuel believes that the price of ABCD’s shares is not going to decrease in the future. Instead, he believes that the price will increase.

EXAMPLE #1 (Buying Long)

Samuel goes to the Stock Market (股市) and uses his own money to buy one share for $25.

Situation A: Michael is right. Two days later, the stock price goes down to $10. 

  • Samuel’s Revenue: $10
  • Samuel’s Cost: $25
  • Samuel’s Profit: (-$15) Samuel lost his money.

*Notice that in this situation, the maximum amount of money Samuel can lost is $25. Even if the stock price 股价 falls to $0, Samuel will only lose $25. 

Situation B: Samuel is right. Two days later, the stock price goes up to $45.

  • Samuel’s Revenue: $45
  • Samuel’s Cost: $25
  • Samuel’s Profit $20

*Notice that in this situation, Samuel’s profit could go very high as long as the price keeps going up. It is better for Samuel if the price goes up and bad if the price goes down. But his only risk is $25.

EXAMPLE #2 (Short Selling)

Instead of using his own money, Michael goes to Thomas & Sons (his stockbroker) and borrows a share from them. He goes to the Stock Market (股市) and sells that share for $25. 

Situation A: Michael is right. Two days later, the stock price goes down to $10. Michael buys one share for $10 and gives it to Thomas & Sons to pay them back for what he borrowed. 

  • Michael’s Cost: $10. 
  • Michael’s Revenue: $25
  • Michael’s Profit: $15

Situation B: Samuel is right. Two days later, the stock price goes up to $45. Michael has to buy one share at $45 to give to Thomas & Sons to pay them back for what he borrowed.

  • Michael’s Cost: $45
  • Michael’s Revenue: $25
  • Michael’s Profit: (-$20) ~ Michael actually lost $20. 

*Notice that in this situation, Michael could lose a lot of money (far more than the $25 he earned. If the price keeps going up, he would lose more and more. For example, if the price goes up to $100, Michael will lose $75. The risk for Michael is more than the risk for Samuel. 

Business Symbols & Abbreviations

18 Oct

Common Business, Economics, and Finance

Symbols & Abbreviations

 

 

Symbol & Abbreviation Meaning
Δ Change or Difference (ΔQ means the change in Quantity Demanded from time 1 to time 2
+ Plus, Rise, Goes Up, Increases, Add
Minus, Fall, Goes Down, Decreases, Subtract
QD Quantity Demanded (The number of products the consumers want and can purchase)
QS Quantity Supplied (The number of products the suppliers have available on the market)
P Profit
p price
± Plus or Minus. (QS = ±3 means that QS can either go up or down 3 depending on what you changed).
X < Y X is less than Y
X > Y X is more than Y | X is greater than Y
X the Vertical line on a graph
Y the Horizontal line on a graph

 

#Business and #Economics: Business Vocabulary with Chinese Translations (Update)

11 Oct

I’ve added new terms to the list of Business Vocabulary.

Don’t forget, the Chinese translations come from the Chinese students rather than professional translators. While I believe they are accurate, you may want to consult professionals before using them for official documents. This is mainly intended to contribute to daily conversation between English speaking Companies and Chinese companies.

Abbreviations:

v. = Verb
n. = Noun
adj. = Adjective
adv. = Adverb

(c) All Rights Reserved. You are welcome to use this material. However, if you do end up using these definitions in your material (educational, informational, or professional), please include either a link to this webpage or the following reference: Blessing, Olivia. “Business Vocabulary with Chinese Translations.” DeceptivelyBlonde.com. This is for two reasons: 1) I’d like to share the resource with others. 2) I created these definitions myself. Thanks!

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Bar Chart (n.) A way of showing information on a chart 图表. The chart shows the information divided up into rectangles. Each rectangle represents one factor and shows the “amount” of that factor.  Allows readers to compare and contrast different things.    条形图 – Tiáo xíng tú

Image result for bar chart

Capital (n.) ~ Wealth (usually money, but also includes other assets) used to buy the inputs and materials used in order to create products. The term has different meanings depending on whether you are an accountant, economist, or financial adviser. 资本 – zī běn

Graph (n.) ~ A way of showing the relationship between two factors in a picture or image form.  Two lines, one called “X” and one called “Y,” are each used to represent one factor.  Lines can then be drawn to show the relationship between X and Y as they change.   曲线图 – qū xiàn tú

Image result for line graph

Input (n.) ~ Resources used to create a product . . . technology, labor, raw materials, etc. Only materials used to make the product, not those used to sell, ship, etc.  用于创建产品的资源

Labor (n.) ~ 1Effort. The work you put into something (“Thomas wants a higher salary for his labor“). 劳动 – Láodòng 劳动是人类生产力为改变商品的使用价值和增加商品的价值的实际使用 2(In Economics & Finance) The number of employees (“When Capital is $15, the Labor is 4 employees“). Usually abbreviated 简短的 “L” in mathematical formulas and economic models. 劳动力 – Láodònglì

Labor (v.) ~ To work. To put effort into something.  劳动 – Láodòng

Loan (n.) ~ Money that A borrows from B and must eventually pay back. Often includes an extra “interest”息 fee.   – Dài

Marginal (adj.) ~ In Business & Economics – A factor of or something that results from small or little changes. Often the profit, cost, or revenue associated with having or making “one more” of something. 边际 – biān jì

Marginal Cost (n.) ~ The cost that comes when you make one more product. 边际成本 – biān jì chéng běn

Marginal Profit (n.) ~ The profit (revenue – cost) that comes when you make one more product. 边际利润 – Biān jì lì rùn

Marginal Revenue (n.) ~ The revenue that comes when you make one more product. 边际报酬 – biān jì bào chóu

Negative Correlation (n.) The situation when two things (X & Y) are related to one another so that if X increases, Y decreases. If X decreases, Y increases. (X & Y go in opposite directions). In economics, we often say two things are “inversely related” if there is a negative correlation. For example, if Price goes up then Quantity Demanded will go down. There is a negative correlation and they are inversely related 负相关– Fù xiāngguān

Output (n.) ~ The number of products created. 产量 – Chǎnliàng

Pie Chart (n.) ~ A way of showing information on a chart 图表. The chart is a circle divided into pieces, each representing a percent (%) of the whole “pie. 饼形图 – Bǐng xíng tú

Image result for pie chart

Positive Correlation (n.) ~ The situation when two things (X & Y) are related to one another so that if X increases, Y also increases. If X decreases, Y also decreases. 正相关 – Zhèng xiāngguān

Quantity (n.) ~ The specific amount of something. Answers the question: “How Much.” 空头 – Kōng tóu.

Rate (n.) ~ 1. The speed at which something happens. For example the “Turnover Rate” 周转率 can tell us how often employees leave a company and new ones have to be hired. 率 – lǜ  2. The percentage of X compared to Y. For example, the “Tax Rate” is how much of the Revenue (Y) is used for Taxes (X). 比率 – bǐ lǜ

Scatter Plot (n.) A way of showing information on a chart or graph. A “Scatter Plot” is a graph where the information does not make a straight line 直线. Instead it is “scattered” (疏散) around the graph. 散点图 – Sàn diǎn tú

Image result for scatter plot

Short Sell (v.) ~ X borrows stock from a stock broker, sells the stock, buys it back, and then returns the stock to the stock broker. 卖空 – Mài kōng

Stockbroker (n.) ~ Someone who buys and sells stocks (a middleman – 中间人).  证券经纪人 – Zhèngquàn jīngjì rén

Stock Market (n.) ~ A place (either a physical market or an online market) where buyers and sellers trade in company shares.  股市 – Gǔ shì

Stock Price (n.) ~ The cost of purchasing one share (股of a company. 股价 – Gǔjià

Substitution (v.) ~ Using one thing instead of another. Replacing X with Y. 取代 – Qǔdài

#Business Vocabulary ~ #Economies of Scope and Scale

27 May

As always, this lesson is not intended to be professional advice. This is simply lesson material for ESL students in Business, Economics, and Finance classes. Posted here for their use or for helping other students.

Unlike Short-Term (短期) Planning, Long-Term (长期) operates on different goals (目标), strategies (战略), and analyses (分析).  

Business.jpg

Two common goals are very important: Economies of Scale and Economies of Scope. Continue reading

New Corporate Governance Vocabulary

23 Sep

I’ve added new terms to the list of Business or Corporate Governance Vocabulary

Don’t forget, the Chinese translations come from the Chinese students rather than professional translators. While I believe they are accurate, you may want to consult professionals before using them for official documents. This is mainly intended to contribute to daily conversation between English speaking Companies and Chinese companies.

Abbreviations:

v. = Verb
n. = Noun
adj. = Adjective
adv. = Adverb

(c) All Rights Reserved. You are welcome to use this material. However, if you do end up using these definitions in your material (educational, informational, or professional), please include either a link to this webpage or the following reference: Blessing, Olivia. “Corporate Governance Vocabulary.” DeceptivelyBlonde.com. This is for two reasons: 1) I’d like to share the resource with others. 2) I created these definitions myself. Thanks!

Appoint (v.) ~

  1. To select a person or group of people for specific work or for an official job . 委任 –Wěi rèn
  2. To select a specific time or date for an event. 任命 – Rèn mìng

 

Assets (n.) ~ Anything valuable or of worth that belongs to the company. Found on the Balance Sheet. 资产 – Zīchǎn

Balance of Power (n.) ~ The issue of whether power or authority is equally shared among the people so that no one person or group is stronger than the others. 均势 – Jūnshì / 权力平衡 – Quánlì Pínghéng

Business Practices (n.) ~ The usual methods, procedures, systems, traditions, and rules used by a company in accomplishing its goals. 商业惯例 – Shāngyè guànlì

Chairman (n.) ~ The Chief Officer of a company, appointed as the head of the Board of Directors. Responsible for developing corporate policy and supervising  the Executives. 董事长 – Dǒng Shì Zhǎng

Contribute (v.) ~ To give something (time, money, goods, effort, thoughts, ideas) as part of helping a group accomplish something. (Example – My contribution to the project was the Powerpoint I did)贡献 – Gòngxiàn

Controls (n.) ~ Rules or Restrictions use to limit or regulate something. 管制- Guǎnzhì

Corporate Structure (n.) ~ The system or plan for organizing a corporation’s groups, committees, and people. 公司结构 – Gōngsī Jiégòu

Decide (v.) ~ To make a conclusion or final choice about something. 决定 – Juédìng

Decision (n.) ~ A conclusion or final choice about something. 决议 – Juéyì

Director (n.) ~ Member of the Board of Directors which monitors the Executive Staff, works with the Shareholders, and makes some of the most significant decisions about the company’s purpose, values, ethics, goals, major activities, and future. 董事 – Dǒngshì

Executive (n.) ~ The senior manager or officer in charge of a specific area of the company who is responsible for making and implementing the significant day-to-day decisions. 高管 – Gāo Guǎn

Financial (adj.) ~ Connected to or associated with money or finances. – Cái / 金融 – Jīn róng

Fiscal (adj.) ~ Connected to or associated with money or finances (usually in terms of the cash flow, assets, and liabilities of a company). 财政 – Cái Zhèng

Liabilities (n.) ~ All debts or financial obligations a company owes . Found on the Balance Sheet. 负债 – Fùzhài

Member (n.) ~ Someone who has fulfilled all the requirements and been accepted into the group. (Example – “I am a member of the Wēixìn Group for my class”)  会员 – Huìyuán

Membership (n.) ~ One’s position as part of a group. The fact that someone has fulfilled all the requirements and been accepted into a specific group. (Example – “I have a membership with the gym.”) 会籍 – Huì Jí / 会员资格 – Huìyuán Zīgé

Minimum (n.) ~ The lowest possible amount of something. 最低限度 – Zuìdī Xiàndù

Nomination (n.) ~ The official recommendation or suggestion that someone deserves a specific job. 提名 – Tímíng

Performance (n.) ~ The way someone does their work. When reviewed by others, performance is usually judged by its effectiveness and efficiency. (Example – Your performance was very good; you did the job quickly and correctly). 绩效 – Jīxiào

Relevant (adj.) ~ Directly linked to or important to the issue being considered (Example – Whether or not the product test is successful is relevant to whether we sell it this year or not). 相应 – Xiāng yìng

Remuneration (n.) ~ The payment or reward a person gets for doing their job. 报酬 – Bàochóu

Report (n.) ~ A detailed account or explanation (written or spoken) about the person, group, or company’s activities, work, situation, research, etc汇报 – Huìbào

Report (v.) ~ To give the report to the audience. 报告 – Bàogào

Review (v.) ~ To examine or look over something to make sure it is correct, complete, adequate, or that you understand it. 回顾 – Huígù 

Risk (n.) ~ Something that puts important or valuable items in danger of being destroyed, damaged, or lost. 风险 – Fēngxiǎn

Strategy (n.) ~ A plan or method of accomplishing something. 战略 – Zhànlüè

 

Photo above is not mine. All Rights go to Suzanne Dibble, on who’s website I found the photo.

New Terms Added to Corporate Governance Vocabulary

2 Feb

I’ve added new terms to the list of Business or Corporate Governance Vocabulary

Don’t forget, the Chinese translations come from the Chinese students rather than professional translators. While I believe they are accurate, you may want to consult professionals before using them for official documents. This is mainly intended to contribute to daily conversation between English speaking Companies and Chinese companies.

Abbreviations:
v. = Verb
n. = Noun
adj. = Adjective
adv. = Adverb

(c) All Rights Reserved. You are welcome to use this material. However, if you do end up using these definitions in your material (educational, informational, or professional), please include either a link to this webpage or the following reference: Blessing, Olivia. “Corporate Governance Vocabulary.” DeceptivelyBlonde.com. This is for two reasons: 1) I’d like to share the resource with others. 2) I created these definitions myself. Thanks!

Continue reading

Simple Chinese: Thank You

7 Sep

To live in China, it helps to pick up a little Mandarin here and there!

Thank You = 谢谢 = Xièxiè = Shee-eh Shee-eh (said really fast)

Random Fun: Test Your Vocabulary!

8 Jul

as

 

Fun new test, you can access at http://testyourvocab.com/!  I had over 33,000 words 🙂

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